Glossary

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TermDefinition
candidate SAC (cSAC)A Natura 2000 site that has been submitted to European Commission, but has not yet had formal approval from Europe.
Closed areaProtection for managing fish stocks. An area within which fishing by one or more methods of fishing, or fishing one or more species of fish, is prohibited. Such areas may be permanently closed or be subject to closed seasons (Anon, 2001).
Closed seasonA period during which fishing for a particular species, often within a specified area, is prohibited (Anon, 2001).
Coastal watersDefined in the EU Water Framework Directive as that area of surface water on the landward side of a line, every point of which is at a distance of one nautical mile on the seaward side from the nearest point of the baseline from which the breadth of territorial waters is measured, extending where appropriate up to the outer limit of transitional waters (Anon, 2001).
Coastal zoneThe space in which land-based activities and terrestrial environments influence the marine environment and vice versa (Anon, 2001).
Common Fisheries PolicyProvides the framework for the management of the EC fisheries and Aquaculture sector, including all marine fisheries within 200 miles of member states baselines (Defra, 2007).
CommunityA group of organisms occurring in a particular environment, presumably interacting with each other and with the environment, and identifiable by means of ecological survey from other groups (from Mills, 1969).
Competent authority
Conservation"The regulation of human use of the global ecosystem to sustain its diversity of content indefinitely" (Nature Conservancy Council, 1984).
Conservation objectiveOne or more measurable or otherwise definable objectives required under Regulation 33 of the Conservation Regulations to ensure that a European site maintains a favourable conservation status (Anon, 2001).
Continental shelfThe seabed adjacent to a continent to depths of around 200 metres, or where the continental slope drops steeply to the ocean floor. Defined in law as "the sea bed and subsoil of the submarine areas adjacent to the coast...to a depth of 200 metres"; the legal landward limit is set at the outer limit of territorial waters (q.v.) (Geneva Conference on the Law of the Sea, Convention on the Continental Shelf, 1958).
Critically endangeredIUCN Red List categories - a taxon is Critically endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 1994) (cf. 'Extinct', 'Endangered', 'Vulnerable').

References

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Anon., 2001. A glossary of Marine Nature Conservation and Fisheries. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor. Available from <http://www.jncc.gov.uk/pdf/glossary.pdf>

 

Davies, J., Bennett, T.L., Covey, R., & Mills, D.J.L., 1990. A catalogue of coastal SSSI's with additional notes from published marine biological information. Volume 1. England . Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough , Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 1022. [ Marine Nature Conservation Review Report , no. MNCR/OR/2.]

 

Defra, 2007. A Sea Change: A Marine Bill White Paper. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

 

Dowrick, F.E., 1977. Submarine areas around Great Britain. Public Law, Spring 1977 10-28 .

 

Earll, R.C. & Pagett, R.M., 1984. A classification and catalogue of the sea lochs of the Western Isles. Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 525.

 

European Commission, 1995. Interpretation manual of European Union Habitats. Version EUR12. Brussels; European Commission Directorate General XI.

 

Gaston, K.J., 1994. Rarity . (Population and Community Biology Series, No.13). London: Chapman & Hall.

 

GESAMP, 1995. Biological indicators and their use in the measurement of the condition of the marine environment. ( IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 55.

 

Hiscock, K., 1985. Aspects of the ecology of rocky sublittoral areas. In The ecology of rocky coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis D.Sc , (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), pp 290-328. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

 

Hiscock, K. & Mitchell, R., 1989. Practical methods of field assessment and conservation evaluation of nearshore/estuarine areas. In Developments in estuarine and coastal study techniques . EBSA 17th Symposium, (ed. J. McManus & M. Elliott), pp 53-55. Fredensborg: Olsen, & Olsen, for Estuarine & Brackish Water Sciences Association.

 

Holme, N.A. & MacIntyre, A.D., ed., 1984. Methods for the study of marine benthos 2nd edn. Oxfrod: Blackwell Scientific Publications, for International Biological Programee. [IBP Hanbook, no. 16].

 

IMO, 1991. Guidelines for the designation of Special Areas and the identification of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas, International Maritime Organization (IMO) Assembly Resolution A.720(17) 6 November 1991, para. 3.1.2. London: International Maritime Organization.

 

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Gland: Switzerland.

 

Lewis, J.R., 1964. The ecology of rocky shores . London : English Universities Press.

 

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Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998.  A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.

 

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Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN), 2007. Glossary. Available from <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/sah/glossary.php?simple=on>

 

Mills, E.L., 1969. The community concept in marine zoology, with comments on continua and instability in some marine communities: a review. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26, 1415-1428.

 

Nature Conservancy Council, 1984. Nature conservation in Great Britain. Shrewsbury: Nature Conservancy Council.

 

OED, 1990. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

Pimm, S.L., 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature, 307, 321-326.

 

Prescott, G.W., 1969. The algae: a review. Sunbury-upon-Thames: T. Nelson and Sons Ltd.

 

Pritchard, D., 1993. Strategic Environmental Assessment. RSPB Conservation Review , 7 , 52-55.

 

Pritchard, D.W., 1967. What is an estuary: physical viewpoint. In Estuaries (ed. G.H. Lauf), 3-5. Washington; American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS Publication, no. 83].

 

Raffaelli, D. & Hawkins, S., 1996. Intertidal ecology. London: Chapman & Hall.

 

Steigeler, S.E. ed., 1976. Dictionary of earth sciences. London: Macmillan.