Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | All Entries

TermDefinition
Lagoon (saline)A shallow body of coastal salt water (from brackish to hypersaline) partially separated from an adjacent sea by a barrier of sand or other sediment, or less frequently, by rocks (based on Ardizzone et al., 1988). Three features serve to identify a coastal lagoon: 1) the presence of an isolating barrier beach, spit or island; 2) the retention of all or most of the water mass within the system during periods of low tide in the adjacent sea; 3) the persistence of natural water exchange between the lagoon and the parent sea - by percolation through and/or overtopping of the barrier, through inlet/outflow channels, etc. - permitting the lagoonal water to remain saline or brackish. As defined for the EC Habitats Directive, lagoons are "Expanses of shallow coastal salt water, of varying salinity and water volume, separated from the sea by sand banks or shingle, or, less frequently, by rocks. Salinity may vary from brackish water to hypersalinity depending on rainfall, evaporation and the addition of seawater from storms or from temporary flooding by the sea in winter" (European Commission 1995).
LittoralThe area of the shore that is occupied by marine organisms which are adapted to or need alternating exposure to air and wetting by submersion, splash or spray. On rocky shores, the upper limit is marked by the top of the Littorina /Verrucaria belt and the lower limit by the top of the laminarian zone (Lewis, 1964). It is divided into separate subzones, particularly marked on hard substrata.
Local importanceIn conservation assessment - biotopes or locations which are among the best examples or the only examples within a particular physiographic feature or area of coast but occur widely elsewhere in the coastal sector (q.v.). This was, until 1995, defined as being: "communities or areas which are widespread in similar situations but for which the one mentioned is a good example in the coastal sector under consideration". (Based on Hiscock & Mitchell, 1989.) Cf. 'international importance: species', 'national importance', 'regional importance' (biotopes or areas and species).
Lough / LochLake, in Irish and Scottish respectively.

References

Allaby, A. & Allaby, M., ed., 1990. Concise Oxford dictionary of earth sciences. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

 

Anon., 2001. A glossary of Marine Nature Conservation and Fisheries. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor. Available from <http://www.jncc.gov.uk/pdf/glossary.pdf>

 

Davies, J., Bennett, T.L., Covey, R., & Mills, D.J.L., 1990. A catalogue of coastal SSSI's with additional notes from published marine biological information. Volume 1. England . Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough , Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 1022. [ Marine Nature Conservation Review Report , no. MNCR/OR/2.]

 

Defra, 2007. A Sea Change: A Marine Bill White Paper. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

 

Dowrick, F.E., 1977. Submarine areas around Great Britain. Public Law, Spring 1977 10-28 .

 

Earll, R.C. & Pagett, R.M., 1984. A classification and catalogue of the sea lochs of the Western Isles. Nature Conservancy Council, CSD Report, no. 525.

 

European Commission, 1995. Interpretation manual of European Union Habitats. Version EUR12. Brussels; European Commission Directorate General XI.

 

Gaston, K.J., 1994. Rarity . (Population and Community Biology Series, No.13). London: Chapman & Hall.

 

GESAMP, 1995. Biological indicators and their use in the measurement of the condition of the marine environment. ( IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection, GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 55.

 

Hiscock, K., 1985. Aspects of the ecology of rocky sublittoral areas. In The ecology of rocky coasts: essays presented to J.R. Lewis D.Sc , (ed. P.G. Moore & R. Seed), pp 290-328. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

 

Hiscock, K. & Mitchell, R., 1989. Practical methods of field assessment and conservation evaluation of nearshore/estuarine areas. In Developments in estuarine and coastal study techniques . EBSA 17th Symposium, (ed. J. McManus & M. Elliott), pp 53-55. Fredensborg: Olsen, & Olsen, for Estuarine & Brackish Water Sciences Association.

 

Holme, N.A. & MacIntyre, A.D., ed., 1984. Methods for the study of marine benthos 2nd edn. Oxfrod: Blackwell Scientific Publications, for International Biological Programee. [IBP Hanbook, no. 16].

 

IMO, 1991. Guidelines for the designation of Special Areas and the identification of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas, International Maritime Organization (IMO) Assembly Resolution A.720(17) 6 November 1991, para. 3.1.2. London: International Maritime Organization.

 

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Gland: Switzerland.

 

Lewis, J.R., 1964. The ecology of rocky shores . London : English Universities Press.

 

Lincoln , R.J., & Boxshall, G.A., 1987. The Cambridge illustrated dictionary of natural history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Lincoln, R., Boxshall, G. & Clark, P., 1998.  A dictionary of ecology, evolution and systematics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press.

 

Makins, M. ed., 1991. Collins English dictionary. 3rd ed. Glasgow, Harper Collins.

 

Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN), 2007. Glossary. Available from <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/sah/glossary.php?simple=on>

 

Mills, E.L., 1969. The community concept in marine zoology, with comments on continua and instability in some marine communities: a review. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 26, 1415-1428.

 

Nature Conservancy Council, 1984. Nature conservation in Great Britain. Shrewsbury: Nature Conservancy Council.

 

OED, 1990. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

Pimm, S.L., 1984. The complexity and stability of ecosystems. Nature, 307, 321-326.

 

Prescott, G.W., 1969. The algae: a review. Sunbury-upon-Thames: T. Nelson and Sons Ltd.

 

Pritchard, D., 1993. Strategic Environmental Assessment. RSPB Conservation Review , 7 , 52-55.

 

Pritchard, D.W., 1967. What is an estuary: physical viewpoint. In Estuaries (ed. G.H. Lauf), 3-5. Washington; American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS Publication, no. 83].

 

Raffaelli, D. & Hawkins, S., 1996. Intertidal ecology. London: Chapman & Hall.

 

Steigeler, S.E. ed., 1976. Dictionary of earth sciences. London: Macmillan.